Reference sources are generally the place to begin your research, especially when you're starting out
with an unfamiliar field. But they're also where you return when you need to look up formulas, facts,
definitions, and other standard details; they tend to pack a lot of information into simple, easy-to- use
Types of Reference Sources
Almanac usually a one-volume work with statistics and a compilation of specific facts (e.g. World Almanac and Book of Facts, and Information Please Almanac)
Atlas a book of maps and geographical information (e.g. Atlas of American History)
Bibliography a compilation of sources of information, provides literature on a specific subject or by a specific author (e.g. Books in Print and Bibliography of African Literatures) Biographical sources of information about the lives of people; short entries (e.g. Dictionary Current Biography and Who’s Who in America)
Chronology lists the events described in order of the date on which they occurred Concordance an alphabetical listing of keywords or phrases found the in work of an author or work in a collection of writings (e.g. Topical Bible Concordance)
Dictionary defines words and terms; confirms spelling, definition, and pronunciation; used to find out how words are used; helps to locate synonyms and antonyms and to trace the origin of words (e.g. Webster’s Dictionary)
Directory lists names and addresses of individuals, companies, organizations, and institutions (e.g. Encyclopedia of Associations)
Encyclopedia covers knowledge or branches of knowledge in a comprehensive, but summary fashion; useful for providing facts and giving a broad survey of a topic; written by specialists (e.g. World Book Encyclopedia)
Gazetteer a dictionary of geographical places (no maps) (e.g. Webster’s New Geographical Dictionary) Guidebook provides detailed descriptions of places; intended primarily for the traveler; geographical facts plus maps (e.g. Great Lakes Guidebook)
Handbook treats one broad subject in brief, or gives a brief survey of a subject (e.g. Handbook of American Popular Culture) Index lists citations to periodical articles, book, and proceedings, and tells where they can be found (e.g. Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature and New York Times Index) Manual a specific work that tells how to do something, such as how something operates; descriptions of the inner workings of an organization (e.g. MLA Handbook, and Broadcast News Manual of Style)
Yearbook covers the trends and events of the previous year; may be general in coverage, limited to one subject, or restricted to one geographical area (e.g. State of America’s Children Yearbook)
Introduction: Yoga is an ancient cultural heritage of India spreading rapidly worldwide and being practiced by millions across the globe. It offers a broader perspective of life and refines the personality thus enabling practitioners to attain their inherent potential in a holistic manner. (1,2) It is not merely a system of exercise but is a way of life that gives importance to social and personal values through the Yama (restraints of subhuman tendencies such as violence, stealing and greed etc) and the Niyama (humane observances including cleanliness, contentment, self-introspection and dispassionate discipline). Inculcation of these universal values in health professionals as well as the practice of various practical techniques by them will enable attainment of optimal health while at the same time help them be more humane in their life and profession. One of the major health issues faced by dental professionals is risk for various musculoskeletal disorders with prevalence of general musculoskeletal pain documented to be between 64% and 93% with major issues being back pain (36.3-60.1%) and neck pain (19.8-85%).(3) Risk factors identified for these occupational predispositions include the static and awkward posture of clinical practice as well as other non-ergonomic work practices. It has recently been suggested that Yoga may be a good way for dentists to relieve stress and reduce the risk for repetitive strain injury and dysfunctional posture (4) and a recent survey amongst 220 dentist found statistically significant difference in prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among those practicing Yoga compared to those with no regular activity over a period of 12 months. (5) However there is still ignorance and resistance to Yoga amongst many health professionals and a recent cross–sectional survey in Chennai reported that despite musculoskeletal pain and stress being the most common occupational hazard prevalent among dentists, over 50% of the 390 respondents surveyed didn’t seek any measure to treat these occupational hazards and only 10% of them practiced yoga as the alternative therapy. (6) The authors suggested that a healthy awareness of the potential benefits of Yoga for the dental professionals should be created through continuing dental education programs thus giving them tools with which they could effectively manage such occupational hazards.
ABSTRACT Background: In recent years, there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of career preference in dentistry. But there is a little knowledge about the future aspirations and career perspective among dental students pursuing graduation.
Objectives: This study was carried out to investigate the career preferences of students in dental colleges of Haryana and to determine the factors that might influence their career decisions.
Methods: This cross sectional observational study was conducted among 644 students from 6 dental colleges in Haryana. Participants were chosen randomly after obtaining permission from the administration of the respective colleges. A close-ended questionnaire was administered and the data was analyzed using SPSS version 19.0.
Results: Out of total subjects, 76.40% were willing to opt for a master’s degree in the field of dentistry. Oral surgery was the most preferred choice (35.77%) and paedodontics was the subject of least preference (0.81%). Personal interest in the subject was the most common reason associated with the choice of speciality. The reason least chosen as a factor for determining the future specialization choice was easiness of the subject.
Conclusions: Our study revealed that the most preferred speciality was oral surgery followed by orthodontics and endodontics. A variety of factors appear to inspire dental students to choose a dental speciality. Further research work needs to be done to find out the changing nature of perceptions regarding future specializations and unidentified factors impact on graduates’ career preferences in the field of dentistry.
Keywords: future speciality, career choices, post graduation
ABSTRACT : Hemangiomas are relatively common benign proliferative lesion of vascular tissue origin. They are considered to be benign tumors of infancy characterized by a rapid growth phase with endothelial cell proliferation, followed by gradual involution. It is more common in females when compared to males. In this case report we present a case of Lobular capillary hemangioma in the right buccal mucosa in a 39 year old female.
Keywords: Lobular Capillary Hemangioma, Pyogenic Granuloma
ABSTRACT : Schwannomas are uncommon neurogenic tumors that are typically benign, slow growing, and asymptomatic. Thepreoperative imaging provides us valuable information on location and origin of the tumor aiding in near accurate preoperativediagnosis. In rare cases such as schwannoma, it is critical to determine the origin of the tumor to preserve nerve function which is done with the help of the Magnetic resonance imaging modality
Keywords: schwannoma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, Imaging of schwannoma
ABSTRACT : Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) being a hemato¬logic disorder is characterized by reduced count ofcirculating platelets. The clinical presentation of ITP manifest with petechiae, purpura, gingival bleeding and other manifestationswhich include Gatrointestinal bleeding , petechial spots over the skin and intracranial hemorrhage in fatal conditions. These maybe acute or chronic bleeding with mild to severe symptoms. As a dental professional one must aim at arresting the bleeding from oral cavity and to proceed with further treatment along with physician. Delaying the diagnosis may worsen the condition of ITP. We present a case report on ITP and an update on treatment modalities of ITP.
Keywords: Autoimmne, Gingival bleeding, Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, Petechiae, platelets
ABSTRACT : Peripheral Cement- Ossifying Fibroma [PCOF] is a reactive gingival growth mostly occurring in the anterior region of the maxilla, predominantly seen in teenagers and young adults. Here we report a case of PCOF in a 42 years old female patient presents with the history of asymptomatic gingival growth in right maxillary premolar region over a period of 6 months. Histopathological examination was suggestive of Peripheral cement- ossifying fibroma which exhibits the presence of cellular connective tissue stroma with focal calcifications. To prevent recurrence an early diagnosis and surgical excision is required.
Keywords: Gingival growth, Peripheral cemento ossifying fibroma, recurrence
ABSTRACT : The term Odontoma was coined by Paul Broca in 1869, who defined it as a tumor formed by overgrowth of complete dental tissue. Odontomas constitute about 22% of the odontogenic tumours of the jaws. Here we report 2 cases in the age range of 9-12years visited our OPD with the chief complaint of missing teeth. Routine clinical, radiographic and histopathological examination revealed the presence of compound odontoma which was removed surgically. Being a benign odontogenic neoplasm early diagnosis of odontomas ensure better prognosis
Keywords: Odontoma, Compound odontoma, Mixed odontogenic tumor, Hamartomatous lesion
ABSTRACT : Lipomas are benign tumors consisting entirely of mature fat cells (adipocytes) and they can occur anywhere in body among which intraoral lipoma comprises only 0.1% to 4.5% of all benign tumors. It is most frequently tend to occur in major salivary glands (especially the parotid gland) followed by the buccal mucosa, lip, tongue, palate, floor of the mouth, and gingiva. Lipomas are usually asymptomatic, slow growing round to ovoid mass with soft consistency. Large sized intra oral lipomas may cause discomfort, difficulty in chewing, dysphagia and dyspnea. The objective of this paper is to present a case of oral lipoma in the buccal mucosa in a 38 years old male patient.
Keywords: Oral Lipoma, Buccal mucosa, Adipocytes
ABSTRACT : Low flow venous malformations are characteristic lesions with unique presenting features. The most common sites of occurrence are the cheek and the ear in the midface region. Most centres recommend sclerotherapy as the first line of treatment for low flow vascular malformations. We report a case of low flow vascular malformation in the buccal mucosa treated successfully by wide excision and reconstructed with buccal pad of fat.
Case report: A 26 year old patient reported to our hospital with a painless swelling in the buccal mucosa. Under IV sedation patient underwent angiography via the femoral artery which showed no abnormal feeding vessels or draining veins. The lesion was treated by wide excision including the surrounding nidi, which was followed by reconstruction with buccal fat pad under general anaesthesia. The patient was followed up regularly and there was good take at recipient site and also there was no evidence of recurrence.
Conclusion: Low flow venous malformations can be managed by surgical excision alone if there is no feeder vessel or very minimal uptake of the dye by a feeder vessel with the combined effects of a surgeon and vascular radiologist.
Keywords: surgical procedure, reconstructive, fat pad, arteriovenous malformation
ABSTRACT : Oral squamous papilloma refers to the benign proliferation of stratified squamous epithelium, which exhibits a papillary or verrucous exophytic growth on the surface and is composed of benign epithelium and small amount of connective tissue core that is supportive. It is caused by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 (HPV 6 and HPV 11) which contain double stranded DNA. 4 in 1000 persons exhibit oral squamous papilloma and is seen in the age group of 30-50 years with equal sex incidence. It is commonly found on the tongue, hard and soft palate, gingival, buccal, labial or lingual mucosa and sometimes area near to the uvula. Clinically, this lesion presents as an exophytic growth with a verrucous, roughened or cauliflower or wart-like surface and is often a solitary lesion. Histologically, it is a benign proliferative exophytic or verrucous growth lined by stratified squamous epithelium with acanthosis and well ordered stratification. Treatment is conservative surgical excision or use of keratinolytic agents.
Keywords: Papillomas, Human Papilloma Virus, Benign, Verrucous growth, Koilocytes
ABSTRACT : ABSTRACT : Pulpal necrosis is a relatively common sequel following dental trauma which arrests the further root development in an immature permanent tooth resulting in wide open apices. The immature root with a necrotic pulp and apical periodontitis presents multiple challenges to successful treatment. Various treatment modalities for management such teeth include calcium hydroxide apexification, MTA apexification, and endodontic surgeries. Apexification using calcium hydroxide although shown some success but it is less popular nowadays due to limitations like multiple visits, formation of porous barrier. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apexification is a commonly used treatment option for management of immature non-vital teeth. However,it does not strengthen the remaining root structure and the tooth remains fracture prone and non-vital. Regenerative endodontic procedures are designed to replace damaged structures, including dentin and root structures, as well as cells of the pulp-dentin complex. Thickening of root dentin and reestablished tooth vitality are the significant outcome with revascularization which cannot be achieved with apexification procedure. Considering the advantages, if the proper case selection protocol is followed revascularization can be used as an alternative to apexification for management of immature non-vital teeth.
Keywords: ABSTRACT : Apexification, revascularization, immature teeth